Hush: The Documentary

The Science

Want to look into the topic further? Here you can find some of the research that lead to the final film.

It is meant as reference material for review after or during a viewing of the film, it is not representative of the full extent of research done to complete the film.

Bibliography – Studies Shown in the Film

Breast Cancer Studies

Citation Number Link
1 Rebecca H. Johnson, MD – Incidence of Breast Cancer with Distant Involvement among Women in the United States, 1976-2009
2 Brind, J, Chinchilli, VM, Severs, WB et al. – Induced abortion as an independent risk factor for breast cancer:  a comprehensive review and meta-analysis. J Epidemiol Community Health. 1996  J Am Phys Surg Vol. 12, No. 3 (Fall 2007)
3 Patrick S. Carroll, “The Breast Cancer Epidemic: Modeling and Forecasts Based on Abortion and Other Risk Factors”, Journal of American Physicians and Surgeons, Vol.12, No.3 (Fall  2007), pp.72-78
4 Tehranian N, et al. The effect of abortion on the risk of breast cancer. Iranian study presented at a conference at McMaster University, 2006
5 Band,P.R., Le,N.D., Fang,R., Deschamps,M., Carcinogenic and endocrine disrupting effects of cigarette smoking and risk of breast cancer, The Lancet 2002;360:1044-9
6 Michels KB, Xue F, Colditz GA & Willett WC;m 2007 Induced and spontaneous abortion and incidence of breast cancer among young women: a prospective cohort study. Archives of Internal Medicine 167814–820.
7 Russo J, Russo I H. Development of the human breast. Maturitas. 2004; 49(1):2–15
8 Melbye, Wohlfahrt J, Olsen JH, et. al. Induced abortion and the risk of breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 1997; 336
9 Ye, DL Gao, Q. Qin, RM Ray, DB Thomas; Breast cancer in relation to induced abortions in a cohort of Chinese woman. Br J Cancer, 87 (2002), pp. 976(PDF)
10 Janet R. Daling, “Risk of Breast Cancer among Young Women: Relationship to Induced Abortions”, Journal of the National Cancer Institute 86 (1994): 1584- 1592.
11 Huang, “A meta-analysis of the association between induced abortion and breast cancer risk among Chinese females.” Cancer Causes and Control (2013): 1-10.

Preterm Birth & Breast Cancer Risk

Citation Number Link
12 Vatten LJ, Romundstad PR, Trichopoulos D, Skjærven R Pregnancy related protection against breast cancer depends on length of gestation. Br J Cancer 87: 289–290 (2002)
13 Melbye et. al., “Preterm Delivery and risk of breast cancer,” British Journal of Cancer, 80(3-4): 609-613 (1999)(PDF)
14 Innes KE, Byers TE, et. al., “First pregnancy characteristics and subsequent breast cancer risk among young women.” Int J Cancer. 2004 Nov 1;112(2):306-11.

Abortion & Premature Birth Studies

Citation Number Link
15 Shah P. et al. Induced termination of pregnancy and low birth weight and preterm birth: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BJOG. 2009.
16 Hardy G, Benjamin A, Abenhaim HA, et. al, “Effect of induced abortions on early preterm births and adverse perinatal outcomes.” J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2013 Feb;35(2):138-43.
17 Preterm Birth: Causes, Consequences, and Prevention by Richard E. Behrman, MD, JD, and Adrienne Stith Butler, PhD (National Academies Press, 2007)

Abortion & Psychology Studies

Citation Number Link
18 Gissler, E. Hemminki, J. Lonnqvist, “Suicides after Pregnancy in Finland, 1987-94: Register Linkage Study,” BMJ, 1996, 313: 1431
19 Brenda Major et al., “Abortion and Mental Health: Evaluating the Evidence,” American Psychologist 64 (2009)
20 APA, Task Force on Mental Health and Abortion. (2008)
21 Coleman Priscilla K. ‘Abortion and mental health: quantitative synthesis and analysis of research published 1995-2009’, The British Journal of Psychiatry (2011). 199: 180-186


Bibliography – Additional Material Referenced in the ‘Companion Booklet’

Citation Number Link

Lambe M, et al. Parity, age at first and last birth, and risk of breast cancer: a population-based study in Sweden. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 1996

(Each additional child birth after the first has been shown to decrease Breast Cancer risk by 7-10%)


Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer. Breast cancer and breastfeeding: collaborative reanalysis of individual data from 47 epidemiological studies in 30 countries The Lancet 2002

(Each year a woman breast feeds has been shown to decrease breast cancer risk by 4-5%)


MacMahon B, Cole P, Lin TM, Lowe CR, Mirra AP, Ravnihar B, et al. Age at first birth and breast cancer risk. Bull World Health Organ (1970) 43:209–21. 

(important historical study shows the protective effect of early childbirth on breast cancer risk versus increased risk of late childbirth or nulliparity – no child birth)

25  NCI Reproductive History Fact Sheet
26  Johnson R., Chien F., and Bleyer A.. 2013. Incidence of breast cancer with distant involvement among women in the United States, 1976 to 2009. JAMA Oncol. 309:800–805.
29 Russo J, Moral R, Balogh GA, Mailo D, Russo IH. The protective role of pregnancy in breast cancer. Breast Cancer Research 2005; 7(3):131–142.
30 Jose Russo and Irma H. Russo, “Susceptibility of the Mammary Gland to Carcinogenesis. II. Preg‑ nancy Interruption as a Risk Factor in Tumor Incidence,” American Journal of Pathology 100, no. 2 (1980): 497-512.
31 Mahue-Giangreco M, Ursin G, Sullivan-Halley J, Bernstein L. Induced abortion, miscarriage, and breast cancer risk of young women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2003;14:209–214.
32 Marcus PM, Baird DD, Millikan RC, Moorman PG, Qaqish B, Newman B. Adolescent reproductive events and subsequent breast cancer risk. Am J Public Health. 1999;89:1244–7.
33  Henderson KD, Sullivan-Halley J, Reynolds P, Horn-Ross PL, Clarke CA, Chang ET, Neuhausen S, Ursin G, Bernstein L. Incomplete pregnancy is not associated with breast cancer risk: the California Teachers Study. Contraception. 2008;77:391–396. doi: 10.1016/j.contraception.2008.02.004.
34 Innes KE, Byers TE, et. al., “First pregnancy characteristics and subsequent breast cancer risk among young women.” Int J Cancer. 2004 Nov 1;112(2):306-11.
35 “The Care of Women Requesting Induced Abortion. Evidenced-based Clinical Guideline Number 7” RCOG Press, Nov. 2011
36  Ninimaki M, Pouta A, Bloiqu A, Gissler M, Hemminki E, Suhonen S, Heikinheimo O. Immediate complications after medical compared with surgical termination of pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2009;114(4):795–804.
37 “Does abortion reduce the mental health risks of unwanted or unintended pregnancy? A re-appraisal of the evidence.” Aust NZ J Psychiatry, Sept. 2013, 47 No. 9(12): 819-827
38 Fergusson DM, Horwood LJ, Boden JM. Abortion and mental health disorders: evidence from a 30-year longitudinal study. Brit J Psychiat 2008; 193(6): 444–451.
39 Harlow BL, Cohen LS, Otto MW, Spiegelman D, Cramer DW. Early life menstrual characteristics and pregnancy experiences among women with and without major depression: the Harvard study of moods and cycles. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2004;79(1–3):167–176.
40 Major, B. & Cozzarelli,C., “Psychosocial Predictors of Adjustment to Abortion,”  Journal of Social Issues, 48(3):121-142 (1992).
41 Miller, W.B., “An Empirical Study of the Psychological Antecedents and Consequences of Induced Abortion,” Journal of Social Issues, 48(3):67-93 (1992).
42 Adler, N.E., et al., “Psychological Factors in Abortion: A Review” American Psychologist 47(10):1194-1204 (1992).